Glare might seem like a subjective term, but it is actually calculated using a precise formula. Essentially, this formula measures the luminance of a lamp divided by the background of visible luminance from the room. This number is called the Unified Glare Rating, or UGR, and it ranges from 5 to 40. The lower the number, the better. For example, a low UGR of 10 means the glare is so discreet it will go unnoticed, while UGR of 30 will definitely cause distraction.
Here are some links to websites explaining glare and UGR (Unified Glare Rating) in easy to understand terms:
DOE publishes CALIPER Snapshot Report on LED MR 16 Lamps
The U.S. Department of Energy’s CALiPER program has released a Snapshot Report on MR16 lamps, which utilizes the LED Lighting Facts® program’s extensive product database to help industry stakeholders understand the current state and trajectory of the market for that class of products.
Among the key findings:
•Few MR16 lamps currently listed by LED Lighting Facts are comparable to a 50W (12V) halogen MR16 lamp. Of the small subset of MR16s that provided data for beam angle and center beam intensity, only one would meet the minimum ENERGY STAR® center-beam candlepower criterion for equivalence to a 50W halogen MR16 at the same beam angle (40°).
•While the overall number of MR16s listed by LED Lighting Facts has increased slightly over the past three years, they now account for only 4 percent of all listed products, compared with 11 percent three years ago; and the mean efficacy for newly listed LED MR16s has shown minimal change over the past two years.
•Both lumen output and input power have increased steadily in recent quarters. The net result has been little change in luminous efficacy.
•On average, the MR16 lamps listed by LED Lighting Facts have slightly better color quality than other lamp types, with a higher percentage of MR16 lamps having a color rendering index above 90.
•As with all categories, there is substantial variability in the performance of LED MR16 lamps listed by LED Lighting Facts. Specifiers and consumers should evaluate each product on its own merits.
China labor shortage? Not this year say suppliers and experts
SINOLAND WORLDWIDE LTD. was quoted in an article by GLOBAL SOURCES
Leslie T. Chang: The voices of China’s workers
In the ongoing debate about globalization, what’s been missing is the voices of workers — the millions of people who migrate to factories in China and other emerging countries to make goods sold all over the world. Reporter Leslie T. Chang sought out women who work in one of China’s booming megacities, and tells their stories.